Although during the American Civil War (1861–65) Richmond served as the capital of the Confederacy and Virginian Robert E.
The mountainous areas contain tracts of various coniferous species and hardwoods such as hickory and oak.
The Rappahannock, York, and James rivers indent the coast to form the main peninsulas.
Two other systems pass into North Carolina, while in the extreme southwestern corner of the state two major systems flow eventually into the Gulf of Mexico. In the Tidewater, the tidal lowlands are usually covered with loam, a mixed soil rich in organic materials. In the Piedmont, clay and limestone soils dominate, and limestone soils are found in the valley areas west of the Blue Ridge.
These temperatures allow growing seasons of up to eight months, three months longer than those in far western Virginia.
Elsewhere in the Tidewater and Piedmont regions, continental weather overcomes the eastern marine influence to produce colder winters.